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The Con in Economics

March 5, 2013 by Tony Noerpel filed under Columns, Sustainable Planet 2 Comments
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“In so far as a theory can be said to have assumptions at all, in so far as their realism can be judged independently of the validity of predictions, the relation between the significance of a theory and the realism of its assumptions is almost the opposite of that suggested by the view under criticism. Truly important and significant hypotheses will be found to have assumptions that are wildly inaccurate descriptive representations of reality and, in general, the more significant the theory, the more unrealistic the assumptions.” Milton Friedman [1].

I first read this remarkable passage by Milton Friedman a few years ago in Steve Keen’s book Debunking Economics [2]. Keen is one of only twelve economists to have predicted the recent great recession [3] so he is entirely credible. Still I’m a skeptical person and with due respect to Friedman I had to read the original paper. Even assuming Keen’s quote is accurate and it is; it may have been taken out of context, and it is not. I found Friedman’s remark so outrageous that I had to comment on it, and apparently so did a whole lot of other people. I came across the original paper along with several critiques by other economists, including Paul Samuelson, and philosophers, including Ernest Nagel, in Bruce Caldwell’s book Appraisal and Criticism in Economics, A book of Readings [4]. Economic methodology is an esoteric subject even for economists but the selections in the book are interesting and expose us to yet another example of how not to think.

Unfortunately, the book contains no critiques of Friedman’s paper by scientists who seem to have ignored him. Scientists at the time were perhaps paying more attention to debunking that other but far less dangerous pseudo scientist Immanuel Velikovsky [5]. While Velikovsky garnered a small following of ordinary people then; he is now largely forgotten. Friedman, on the other hand, had outsized influence with many powerful political leaders including the Iron Lady, the Great Communicator and Pinocchio (for those of you much younger than me: Maggie Thatcher, Ronald Reagan and the ruthless dictator Augusto Pinochet). And though he died in 2006, his ideology still dominates American conservative economics.

While Friedman doesn’t use the term, the methodology he describes in his 1953 paper is called instrumentalism. The economist Lawrence Boland confirmed, from private communications with Freidman that it was still his methodology of choice in 1980 [6] at the height of his influence. To understand what instrumentalism is, it is useful to contrast it with science or the scientific method, which instrumentalism is not.

Science is the collection of data by very careful observation such as the position of the planets and other heavenly bodies and by experiments such as rolling balls down incline planes and carefully recording velocity and acceleration. These are the activities which Johannes Kepler, Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei and other scientists exhaustively performed. Scientists then propose hypotheses which explain the collected data. These hypotheses are used to analyze the data and make testable predictions. In the scientific realm hypotheses include their assumptions. This process is a loop where each experiment or observation or calculation produces a better hypothesis or redefines more realistic assumptions over which it applies.

Newton’s law of gravity, which Friedman calls the “law of falling”, predicts the acceleration and velocity of a mass being acted on by a gravitational field in a vacuum. It turns out to accurately explain the orbit of the moon, which is moving in a vacuum, and also quite accurately explain what happens to a hammer if we drop it off a roof which isn’t moving in a vacuum but close enough. And it also explains, despite Friedman’s protestations, the movement of a feather dropped off the same roof and why it will eventually hit the ground even in a gale force wind. It will not achieve escape velocity. Newtonian mechanics explains the motion of a feather provided we include all the forces acting on it as it falls. And as the astronomer David Scott, on Apollo 15, demonstrated, on the moon, in a vacuum, a hammer and a feather do fall at exactly the same rate and hit the moon’s surface at exactly the same time [7]. The point is one cannot separate the theory of gravity from its assumptions. The assumptions are part of the theory and inform us when the theory applies directly and when we must consider other forces or better theories.

Using the “law of falling” to show that unrealistic assumptions, a vacuum, lead to significant theories was an unfortunate choice for Friedman since a vacuum is hardly an unrealistic assumption. In reality the density of atoms in the universe is on the order of a single hydrogen atom for every four cubic meters of volume [8] and thus the assumption of a vacuum holds nearly everywhere in our universe and it is rather parochial to assume that everything takes place in the very thin veneer of the Earth’s atmosphere.

There are other assumptions of Newtonian mechanics which are more limiting such as an absolute space-time reference and that the objects of interest must be traveling much slower than the speed of light. Friedman might have made hay with those but again the reality of the assumptions are part of the theory and the assumptions of Newtonian Mechanics are good enough approximations to reality to put a man on the moon not because Newton’s assumptions are unrealistic but because they are.

Instrumentalism is an entirely different matter. While the goal of science is to understand the natural world; the goal if instrumentalism is to make predictions. According to Friedman, assumptions need not be realistic at all in order to derive a theory, the more unrealistic the better. And the theory can only be judged on the accuracy of its predictions and not the reality of the assumptions. Samuelson points out [9] that Friedman’s use of “unrealistic” is a euphemism for “empirically dead wrong.” Friedman’s argument, which goes on for forty pages, turns out, at least according to Samuelson, to be a rather elaborate justification for the perfectly competitive laissez faire model of the economy and the maximization of profit hypothesis [10]. Keen discusses [2] in great detail why the assumptions leading to Freidman’s economic model and hypothesis really are unrealistic and why exactly that undermines them. Defending rubbish rather than admitting one might be wrong is what Samuelson dubs the Freidman Twist. Paul Samuelson wrote [9]: “The whole force of my attack on the F-twist is that the doughnut of empirical correctness in a theory constitutes its worth, while its hole of untruth constitutes its weakness. I regard it as a monstrous perversion of science to claim that a theory is all the better for its shortcomings; and I notice that in the luckier exact sciences, no one dreams of making such a claim.”

In review, Friedman began with “assumptions that are wildly inaccurate descriptive representations of reality” and when caught instead of the expected mea culpa, he dug a deeper hole defending an untenable position with a weirder hypothesis. Why would such a smart person do this? In The Believing Brain [11], the psychologist Michael Shermer writes “smart people believe weird things because they are skilled at defending beliefs they arrived at for non-smart reasons.” This is the Friedman Twist.

In my last article I stated that falsifying the assumptions does not disprove any resultant conclusion or theory but after reading the variety of opinion in Caldwell’s book, I’ve changed my mind. If the assumptions are shown to be false or unrealistic or if the logic is unsound then the resultant theory is not likely correct and even if it was shown to be capable of making a prediction which turned out to be true, one cannot possibly know whether or not this was by pure chance, or what limitations might or might not apply if the assumptions were unrealistic. If the assumptions are unrealistic, one has no understanding. A theory derived from “assumptions that are wildly inaccurate descriptive representations of reality” gives no insight into the underlying physics. In other words, one knows nothing about such a theory and it is impossible to test. Ernest Nagel, in a half-hearted attempt to defend Friedman [12], writes: “Sound conclusions are sometimes supported by erroneous arguments, and the error is compounded when a sound conclusion is declared to be mistaken on the ground that the argument for it is mistaken.” I submit that we can reformulate this statement more accurately: “Conclusions supported by erroneous arguments are not sound and cannot be confirmed based on a few presumably successful predictions. The error is compounded if one assumes the predicted outcome was a confirming outcome rather than having happened by chance.”

Friedman’s Wikipedia page [13] says this about his paper. “Friedman’s essay “The Methodology of Positive Economics” (1953) provided the epistemological pattern for his own subsequent research and to a degree that of the Chicago School.” His paper wasn’t just a one off bit of obfuscating nonsense but describes the core methodology of the American conservative movement.

The page continues, “[A] useful economic theory should be judged not by its descriptive realism but by its simplicity and fruitfulness as an engine of prediction. That is, students should measure the accuracy of its predictions, rather than the ‘soundness of its assumptions.”

In his paper, Friedman writes that such theories “can be used to predict the consequences of changes in circumstances.” Let’s assume for the sake of the discussion that Friedman is indeed correct that theories based on unrealistic or erroneous assumptions can be true and that this can be proved if they make accurate predictions. Let’s indiscriminately put all of neo-classical economic theory to Friedman’s test. How many neo-classical economists and their theories predicted the 2006 housing bubble bursting, 2007 start of the great recession, and 2008 bank failures and credit crises. Indeed, the economist Dirk Bezemer of Groningen University argues [3]: “The credit crisis and ensuing recession may be viewed as a ‘natural experiment’ in the validity of economic models.” By this simple experiment, we prove that the entire body of neo-classical theory failed utterly [3]. During the ensuing bloodbath, economists assured us that “nobody” could have seen it coming, where “nobody” in this case is a euphemism for “no neo-classical economist”. Although much shorter than forty pages, that line is a classic Friedman Twist. Rather than admitting the obvious truth: “we were wrong and therefore something is seriously wrong with our theories and our assumptions about how the economy actually works and our strange methodology,” economists tried to tell us the events were impossible to predict. On December 9, 2008, Glenn Stevens, Governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia asserted: “I do not know anyone who predicted this course of events. This should give us cause to reflect on how hard a job it is to make genuinely useful forecasts;” [3] not more “accurately” how hard a job it is to derive useful theories from assumptions that are wildly inaccurate descriptive representations of reality.

That these events were predictable and predicted I know with certainty since even I predicted them, despite having never taken an economics course in my life. I didn’t do this in a vacuum, of course. Twelve economists did make quite accurate predictions [3] and I was lucky enough to have discovered six of them quite early on: Dean Baker, Stephen Keen, Kurt Richebächer, Nouriel Roubini, Peter Schiff, and Robert Shiller. I’m only taking credit for having reasonably good judgment as to which experts to heed; I’m not claiming to be an expert on the economy. I’m not even taking credit for being a “nobody”.

Why is neo-classical economics then such a failure? This is precisely because, believe it or not, their assumptions are wildly inaccurate descriptive representations of reality. Keen documents an abundance of false assumptions on the part of neo-classical economists using economic theory itself. In Frustration, he concludes that his own discipline is not a science at all and needs rescue from real scientists. One gets the impression that Samuelson’s attack on Friedman was motivated by a desire to defend the discipline. Luckier exact sciences don’t have such knuckleheads. Economics is full of them. Personally, I feel bad for those economists like Samuelson who tried to represent the field with scientific dignity and honesty. The kicker is that even the credible Keen though misses several of the most egregious false assumptions in all neo-classical economic models: one, the assumption that infinite exponential economic growth is possible, two, the assumption that there are no limits to low entropy resources, three, the assumption that high entropy wastes can be ignored, and four, the assumption that greed is good and that unregulated perfectly competitive laissez faire economies can exist or if they did that this would actually be good for us.

The first three wildly inaccurate assumptions are related to the economic community’s denial of the second law of thermodynamics. This is unequivocally fatal as pointed out by the physicist Arthur Eddington [14]:

“The law that entropy always increases-the second law of thermodynamics-holds, I think, the supreme position among the laws of Nature. If someone points out to you that your pet theory of the universe is in disagreement with Maxwell’s equations-then so much the worse for Maxwell’s equations. If it is found to be contradicted by observation-well, these experimentalists do bungle things sometimes. But if your theory is found to be against the second law of thermodynamics I can give you no hope; there is nothing for it but to collapse in deepest humiliation.”

There are two schools of economics which do recognize the entropy law and these are ecological economics, founded by the economist Herman Daly [15], and the biophysical school of economics founded by the ecologist, Charles Hall [16]. In his book Debunking Economics, Steve Keen lists a few economic schools he suggests might be able to reform economics. He does not list ecological or biophysical economics. I asked him why and he replied that they were too small to show up on his radar.

The economy is an irreversible process and therefore subject to the second law of thermodynamics, the entropy law. One cannot unscramble an egg, reconstruct it and shove it back into the chicken and redistribute all the money that changed hands along the way from the consumer, to the grocer, to the distributor, to the farmer and so on. The economic process is not reversible. We can increase the level of difficulty by trying to reconstruct the scrambled egg after we’ve eaten and digested it. Though the odds of this happening are much less than once in the entire existence of our universe, having managed that, it would be interesting to see if any grocer would take it back, knowing what the egg had been through. There is no hope for neo-classical economics.

The fourth false assumption economists make, that is perhaps more relevant to the events that began in 2006, is that consumers and producers are rational. In fact, Kevin Phillips’ law [17] holds that “Bad capitalism drives out good capitalism.” We all know this. In fact in Sunday’s Washington Post there is a wonderful three page story about a local professional cyclist, Joe Dombrowski. Dombrowski says “No matter what it is, whether it’s sports, business, whatever, people are always going to cheat.” And when regulation is slack or non-existent and one bank inevitably cheats then the rest have to cheat to compete. This is one reason Friedman’s perfectly competitive laissez faire model of the economy is unrealistic. Economists assume greed is good and consumers and producers are rational and that may be the most irrational, unrealistic assumption in Friedman’s quiver.

What does the failure of neo-classical economics and in particular Friedman’s conservative economic ideology mean for us? How can we apply this knowledge? The National Association of Manufacturers represents a self-contradiction in Friedman’s belief system. Friedman opposed organized labor because it disrupted the efficient operation of the free market but a natural outcome of his ideology is the organization of capital which because of the concentrated wealth and power has a far more disruptive influence on the market. The National Association of Manufacturers [18] released an economic study recently which predicts that a carbon tax will cripple the economy. The underlying assumption of this report, that we can ignore the Entropy Law, is “empirically dead wrong” and we can advisedly reject the findings out of hand. What we do know from this physical law is that if we do not introduce a rather large carbon tax and very soon, there will be no economy. As energy economist Vaclav Smil [19] laments: “Everything has to get worse. We are behaving so badly.” We are behaving like Friedman.

For an excellent description of Friedman’s ideology in action, please read Naomi Klein’s well researched book, The Shock Doctrine, The Rise of Disaster Economics [20].

Human-Caused Global Warming update: Australia has just experienced their hottest summer ever. See Figure 1 below. Perhaps another disaster for the Friedmanites to take advantage of.

Figure 1. Devastating wildfires swept through many areas of Australia during January 2013, the nation’s hottest month on record. In this photo provided by the New South Wales Rural Fire Service, a wildfire near Deans Gap, Australia, crosses the Princes Highway Tuesday, Jan. 8, 2013. (AP Photo/NSW Rural Fire Service, James Morris http://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/comment.html?entrynum=2359 )

[1] Milton Friedman, The Methodology of Positive Economics, in Essays in Positive Economics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953, pp. 3-43.

[2] Steve Keen, Debunking Economics,

[3] Bezemer, Dirk J, “No One Saw This Coming”: Understanding Financial Crisis Through Accounting Models, Groningen University, 16. June 2009, Online at http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/15892/

[4] Bruce Caldwell, ed., Appraisal and Criticism in Economics, A Book Of Readings, Allen and Unwin, 1984. Friedman’s, Samuelson’s, Boland’s and Caldwell’s essays can all be found in this book and much more.

[5] Michael Gordin, The Pseudo-Science Wars, Immanuel Velikovsky and the Birth of the Modern Fringe, University of Chicago Press, 2012,

[6] Lawrence Boland, A Critique of Friedman’s Critics, Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 17, June 1979, pp. 503-522.

[7] A link to the video of David Scott on Apollo 15. : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mTsrRZEMwA

[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universe

[9] Paul Samuelson, Theory and Realism: A Reply, American Economic Review, vol. 54, September 1964, pp736-9.

[10] Paul Samuelson, Problems of Methodology – Discussion, American Economic Review, vol. 53, May 1963, pp. 231-6.

[11] Michael Shermer, The Believing Brain, 2011

[12] Ernest Nagel, Assumptions in Economic Theory, American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, vol. 53, May 1963, pp. 211-219.

[13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_Friedman

[14] http://brleader.com/?p=2025Eddington, A.S., “The Nature of the Physical World,” [1928], The Gifford Lectures 1927, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge UK, 1933, reprint, pp.74-75.

[15] Herman Daly and Joshua Farley, Ecological Economics, Principles and Applications, Island Press, 2004.

[16] Charles Hall and Kent Kitgaarrd, Energy and the Wealth of Nations, Understanding the Biophysical Economy, Springer, 2012.

[17] Kevin Phillips, Bad Money, Reckless Finance, Failed Politics, and the Global Crisis of American Capitalism, Viking, 2008.

[18] http://www.nam.org/~/media/ECF11DF347094E0DA8AF7BD9A696ABDB.ashx

[19] http://www.resilience.org/stories/2013-02-27/can-we-live-again-in-1964-s-energy-world

[20] Naomi Klein, The Shock doctrine, The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Metropolitan Books, 2007.

2 comments

  1. james Van Sant says:

    A brilliant article debunking the sacred conservative views of Friedman’s economic theory. Classical physics and economics sort of give some correct answers part of the time in a chaotic world . A broken clock is right once a day. Corporations demand Infinite growth yielding infinite profits on a finite planet which is impossible.
    Ecologists ask what is the carrying capacity of the planet? We have 7 billion humans now all wanting to live the American lifestyle. If they all demand an automobile, a cellphone and an HDTV to watch while eating three MacBurgers a day can the finite resources of the planet sustain that demand? What if the population doubles again? The size and composition of the sphere we call Earth
    is unlikely to double to meet corporate growth and profit demands. Time for a better economic theory?

  2. [...] [6] Tony Noerpel, The Con in Economics, March 5, 2013, http://brleader.com/?p=10734 [...]

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Events

December 2014
M T W T F S S
1

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

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December 1, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

2 3

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

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December 3, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

4 5

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

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December 5, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

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Notaviva Vineyards - Bluegrass Jam - FREE event

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December 6, 2014

Notaviva Vineyards
13274 Sagle Rd
Purcellville, 20132
540-668-6756

Notaviva Vineyards presents their monthly Bluegrass Jam a FREE event held the first Saturday of every month!

An event for all ages featuring Ashby Run. Open to players of every skill level

3pm-6pm Saturday 7/5

Wine available by the glass and by the bottle, lite snacks available. Must be 21 to drink alcohol.

7

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

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December 7, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

African Trunk Show (Free!)

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December 7, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
United States
7038482323

African Trunk Show with Beadazzled

444 West Broad St, Falls Church VA 22046
www.Beadazzled.com / 703-848-2323
Join Beadazzled in celebrating the diverse beads and crafts of the African continent and its many peoples. Africa’s rich history of adornment is reflected in the vast selection and variety of beads we will have at our trunk show.
From African-made brass, copper, and white metal beads and pendants from Ethiopia, Ghana and the Ivory Coast; organics such as clam, ostrich egg, and coconut shell beads, batik bone bone beads as well as snake and fish vertebrae; and powder glass beads to the profusion of Venetian and Bohemian glass trade beads from the African trade, you will be sure to find something to add to your collection or enhance your jewelry.
Don’t miss this chance to see, learn about, and shop for African beads and crafts from our friend Ebrima who has been buying and selling beads for decades. Ebrima will happily share his knowledge and answer questions during his exclusive shows at Beadazzled here and on the 6th in Baltimore. And as always, our wonderful staff will be delighted to assist you in hand-selecting the perfect beads for your next project or gift.

8 9

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

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December 9, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

10 11

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

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December 11, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

Start Your Business (Loudoun)Start Your Business Seminar

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December 11, 2014

Is owning a small business a good fit for me? What are the steps for starting a business? Will I need funding? What are potential sources of funding? Ruth Cope, Assistant Director of the Loudoun SBDC, and Arthur Thompson, a Principal of Keyser Thompson Insurance Agency, will answer these and other questions essential for successfully starting a small business. Highlights will include:

  • Entrepreneurial traits
  • Taxes and licensing
  • Business plan development
  • Sources of financing
  • Marketing
  • Insurance

 

 REGISTER at LoudounSBDC.eventbrite.com.

Fee:  $10 online registration; $15 at the door
Those paying at the door are not guaranteed seating.

12 13

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

Close

December 13, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

Barns of Rose Hill presents “The Woodshedders”

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December 13, 2014

Barns of Rose Hill
95 Chalmers Ct.
Berryville, VA 22611

Doors open at 7:30 PM show starts at 8:00 P.M. The Woodshedders are known for fun, danceable shows that swerve between different genres to create exciting original sounds. They bring together the diverse influences of American Country, Rhythm & Blues, Old-Time, Bluegrass, and Gypsy Jazz. The lineup includes Dwayne Brooke on guitar and vocals, Ryan Mayo on upright bass and piano, Jared Pool on guitar and mandolin, Jesse Shultzaberger on drums, and Dave Van Deventer on fiddle. The band has played Bristol Rhythm & Roots Festival, Mountain Stage New Song Fest, PBS Song of the Mountains, WAMU’s Capital Americana, and are the host band of Virginia’s Watermelon Park Fest. Their third all-original album, Wildfire, was released in 2013 and explores the band’s diverse roots music influences, and spotlights its virtuosic members. $15.00 in advance, $20.00 at the door. www.barnsofrosehill.org

14
15

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

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December 15, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

16

Bookkeeping and Taxation for Small Businesses

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December 16, 2014

Richard Hall, a CPA with over 37 years of accounting experience, will explain:

 

  • Record setup
  • Monthly and quarterly filing and bookkeeping responsibilities
  • The four most common tax returns for companies
  • Important areas of corporate accounting
  • Some new tax requirements

 

The seminar fee is $25 for registration at www.LoudounSBDC.eventbrite.com or $30 at the door. Those who pay at the door are not guaranteed seating or handouts.

 

17

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

Close

December 17, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

18 19

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

Close

December 19, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

20

Gustafer Yellowgold's "The Tooth Will Set You Free" Tour

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December 20, 2014

Franklin Park Arts Center
36441 Blueridge View Lane
Purcellville, VA 20132

Two performances - 1:00 p.m. & 3:30 p.m. Pancake lunch - 2:00 p.m.

Celebrate the release of Gustafer’s brand new DVD/CD set: “Gustafer Yellowgold’s Wisdom Tooth Of Wisdom”

“The show is a cross between ‘Yellow Submarine’ and Dr. Seuss.” - The New York Times

An absurdly funny and touching multi-media concert of live songs, stories and animation, performed by award-winning illustrator/songwriter Morgan Taylor.

This live performance will feature new songs and videos from Gustafer Yellowgold's Wisdom Tooth of Wisdom, along with plenty of fan favorites from the five previous Gustafer Yellowgold releases, as well as this year's hit single, "Cakenstein."

21

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

Close

December 21, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

22 23

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

Close

December 23, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

24 25

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

Close

December 25, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

26

December Fourth Friday at Breaux

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December 26, 2014

Breaux Vineyards
36888 Breaux Vineyards Lane
Purcellville, 20132
United States
540-668-6299 ext. 204

Come enjoy the magic of winter evenings overlooking 105 acres of beautiful, lush vines at Fourth Fridays. We will have live music on the patio, food for purchase, and endless enchanting views as the sun sets over the vineyard.  Enjoy $4 mini tastings and a great selection of wines by the glass as you enjoy a fun evening with friends and your Breaux Vineyards family.

Don't miss any of these fun evenings!  The fourth Friday of each month from 5-9pm is reserved for this great event, so plan ahead!

27

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

Close

December 27, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

28
29

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

Close

December 29, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

30 31

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

Close

December 31, 2014

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

1 2

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

Close

January 2, 2015

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

3

Notaviva Vineyards - Bluegrass Jam - FREE event

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January 3, 2015

Notaviva Vineyards
13274 Sagle Rd
Purcellville, 20132
540-668-6756

Notaviva Vineyards presents their monthly Bluegrass Jam a FREE event held the first Saturday of every month!

An event for all ages featuring Ashby Run. Open to players of every skill level

3pm-6pm Saturday 7/5

Wine available by the glass and by the bottle, lite snacks available. Must be 21 to drink alcohol.

4

Afghan Treasures Trunk Show

Close

January 4, 2015

Beadazzled
444 West Broad St
Falls Church, 22046
703-848-2323

Join Beadazzled for an amazing three-day trunk show of treasures from Afghanistan.

Our collection will include a dazzling array of gemstones in different shapes, sizes, and finishes in lapis, turquoise, and old carnelians along with unusual iridescent heat-treated copper findings and beads-- and so much more.

Antique jewelry and beautiful hand-made rugs and other textiles will also be for sale. These hand-crafted products come from cottage industries, and we are proud to help preserve South Central Asian cultural heritage by marketing this unique Afghan work.

Help us support these skilled artisans by visiting our Trunk Show anytime during store hours from the 24th to the 26th of October!

Visit www.Beadazzled.com to learn more about this and other events.

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View From the Ridge

Debt, Debt and, More Debt … Or, Is There an Alternative?

10 Dec 2014

blueridge2

The entire trajectory of the Town of Purcellville can be summarized in one word. Debt. The massive debt the town incurred to build the wastewater treatment plant – which currently operates at just 40 percent capacity – stands at $33 million. There was a $6 million mandated upgrade to the …

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Editorial

December Cartoon

10 Dec 2014

Blog this! Bookmark on Delicious Digg this post Recommend on Facebook Share on Linkedin Share with Stumblers Tweet about it Subscribe to the comments on this post Print for later Bookmark in Browser Tell a friend

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Sweeping Zoning Changes Continue To Be Proposed

3 Sep 2014

town of purcellville sign

Visions Of Purcellville Looking Like Reston At the August 21 Purcellville Planning Commission Work Session town community development staff continued to forge ahead with sweeping zoning changes to the town. Latest in the discussion was the PDH zoning district. Vice Chair Dennis Beese mentioned that he thought the goal was to make Purcellville look like Reston. This PDH district is …

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Lifestyle

What You Don’t Know About Propane – But Should

10 Dec 2014

daveschultz

Answers And Insights That Could Save You Thousands An Interview With Dale Schultz Where Does Propane Come From? Dale Schultz: Propane is a by-product of drilling for Natural Gas (Methane). All propane in our area comes from North America. The U.S. is a net exporter of propane, primarily to Central and South America. The propane is separated from the methane, …

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Loudoun Valley Is Where Jones’s Heart Is

10 Dec 2014

rodneyjones

By Hannah Hager If the home is where the heart is, then Loudoun Valley High School is home for Rodney Jones and its students and staff are his family. A life in education felt like second nature to him because Jones, who is Social Science Department chair and presents lectures on both psychology and modern world history, comes from a …

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Holidays – The Season of Giving

10 Dec 2014

Gunderman

By Mark Gunderman Besides the many commandments in the Torah instructing us to love our fellow man, there is also an explicit commandment to open your hand to the poor and to give or loan them whatever they need to keep from spiraling into poverty. In Judaism, giving to the poor is not considered a generous act; it is called …

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Wild Loudoun

The Red-Legged Partridge – Here in Song, Spirit, and … the Flesh?

10 Dec 2014

wildloudoun

“The Twelve Days of Christmas” was first published in the late 1700s. Celebrating a wealth of gift giving and other activities that take place from late December through early January, the famous carol is most well known for its iconic opening verse, “On the first day of Christmas my true love sent to me a partridge in a pear tree.” …

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Around Virginia

Virginia Constitutional Amendment Passes

Amendment by Ramadan Gives Tax Relief to Families of Service Members ‘Killed In Action’ Delegate David I. Ramadan’s (R-87th) proposed Constitutional Amendment, which passed through the General Assembly twice unanimously, was approved by more than 87 percent of those who voted in Virginia’s statewide election yesterday. It was the only …

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Wolf Urges Holder to Investigate Oklahoma Beheading as Terrorist Attack

Frank_wolf

Rep. Frank Wolf (R-VA), chairman of the House Appropriations subcommittee that funds the Department of Justice, today sent the following letter to U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder asking him to investigate the recent beheading in Oklahoma as a terrorist attack and to not just quickly dismiss it at workplace violence …

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Governor McAuliffe Announces Measures to Expand Healthcare Services to Over 200,000 Virginians

McAuliffe

Launches 10-step plan that will reach Virginia’s most vulnerable citizens Governor McAuliffe launched A Healthy Virginia, a 10-step plan to expand healthcare services to over 200,000 Virginians. This plan is an unprecedented action by any governor in Virginia history and includes authorizations of four emergency regulations, one executive order, and …

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Sports

Register Now for Rugby

19 Oct 2014

Western Loudoun Youth Rugby Club is looking for players for the U15 Boys team, U19 Girls team, and the U19 Boys team. The club is having a pre-season meeting on October 23 at 7:00 p.m. at the Purcellville Baptist church. During this meeting, any new players interested in learning more …

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Little League Season Update

8 Aug 2014

ulll

By Carri Michon This spring 2014 Upper Loudoun Little League season found drenching rains making fields unplayable on a regular basis. Over 100 games were rescheduled due to wet, soggy fields, said league president, Norris Beavers. “The most I have ever remembered in my 28 years of volunteering with Upper …

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Letters

Doesn’t Belong on 32nd St

10 Dec 2014

town of purcellville sign

Purcellville is a town loaded with character and charm. Increasingly residents seem keen to preserve what makes our town distinct from others. This is true …

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Put Family Farmers Back Into Farm To School

10 Dec 2014

Hillsboro_Farmers_Market,_fruit

Farm to School programs appeared in the 90′s with a three-way focus: fresh, local foods in schools; agriculture and nutrition education in classrooms and purchases …

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A Time of Gathering and Reflection

10 Dec 2014

home_for_christmas

It seems like December is all about Christmas.  And that means Black Friday, endless renditions of “Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer,” Grinches, Scrooges, dysfunctional family stories …

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